Turismo responsable

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Olga Díez Ascaso

Buenas prácticas de sostenibilidad sociocultural y turismo responsable

La sostenibilidad social se refiere a la conservación en buen estado del equilibrio entre huéspedes y visitantes en las comunidades locales involucradas en proyectos de turismo sostenible. Existe una relación muy estrecha entre sostenibilidad social y sostenibilidad cultural; de hecho, para algunos casos utilizamos de forma genérica el término más amplio de «sostenibilidad socio-cultural».

No existe el turismo de impacto cero, ni en el aspecto ambiental ni en el aspecto socio-cultural. Los fenómenos de transculturación inherentes a las actividades turísticas son ya conocidos y la relación entre mercantilización cultural y transformación social está en constante interconexión. No obstante, se conocen los beneficios económicos del turismo y la necesidad del mismo como principal fuente de ingresos en muchas comunidades, así como la imposibilidad de detenerlo en diversas ocasiones. Por eso, proponemos trabajar para que este impacto se minimice y aprovechar las inercias para favorecer los procesos transformativos positivos. El turismo puede ser un elemento catalizador de situaciones sociales conflictivas.

La función de un planificador de turismo responsable debe tratar de minimizar el impacto negativo no solo desde el mismo momento de la planificación, sino también durante la fase de operación de los productos, mediante un sistema que garantice el respeto a la comunidad local.

La «colonización cultural» es posiblemente uno de los efectos más vistosos, perniciosos e inmediatos de la actividad turística en las poblaciones visitadas. A ello contribuye en gran medida la colonización económica. Las acciones de fomento de los valores culturales y sociales locales son una posibilidad de que estos se refuercen frente a la transculturación y/o colonización cultural por parte de los visitantes. Pero esta puesta en valor ha de realizarse mediante unas buenas prácticas de gestión que no permitan ni el deterioro del patrimonio cultural ni el deterioro social de la comunidad huésped.

La antropología del turismo ha analizado desde sus orígenes las relaciones generadas por el contacto intercultural y el intercambio sociocultural. Partimos de estudios donde la industria del turismo se entiende como un sector de producción económico consolidado que va de lo global a lo local (y viceversa), presentando el turismo como un fenómeno que abarca varias dimensiones y cuya transcendencia no se puede ignorar.

Desde el punto de vista de la sostenibilidad social, y ante este problema inevitable, insistimos en que debe planificarse, de forma paralela al diseño y puesta en marcha de los productos y servicios turísticos, la formación y capacitación en turismo y actividades afines de la comunidad local, de modo que, una vez que la actividad turística se pone en marcha, las poblaciones locales estén ya lo suficientemente capacitadas para absorber los empleos generados, o al menos su mayor parte.

Olga Díez Ascaso  

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